Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had huge impact on social, psychological, and economic well-being of general community people in Nepal.
Objectives: To assess the extent of psychological distress, fear, and level of coping strategies among community members in Nepal.
Methods: A nationwide analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among Nepali residents aged >=18 years using an online structured questionnaire during 2020 December to 2021 January. Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) and Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) were used in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to adjust for potential confounders. Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional review committee of Kathmandu Medical College.
Results: Among 311 respondents, 167 (53.7%) were female. Median age (IQR) 31.3 (13) years with age range 18-69 years. Mean age was 31.4 ± 10.3 years. Being above 30 years old (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 2.13-6.84) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Being a female (AOR 0.55, CI 95% 0.30-0.99), moderately improved working situation due to change of employment (AOR 0.39, CI 95% 0.20-0.76), having little perceived distress due to change of employment status (AOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-0.97), having positive impact of COVID-19 on financial situation (AOR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13-0.61) were associated with lower levels of fear based on the FCV-19S scale.
Conclusions: This study identified individuals who were at higher risk of psychological distress, level of fear, and low coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. These findings would assist in exploring the strategies to support mental health of vulnerable population during pandemic and post-pandemic periods.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Geneva. Switzerland; [Internet] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 10]. [Full Text]
Rahman MA, Rahman S, Wazib A, Arafat SMY, Chowdhury ZZ, Uddin BMM, et al. COVID-19 related psychological distress, fear and coping: Identification of high-risk groups in bangladesh. Front Psychiatry. 2021;12. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]
Rahman MA, Hoque N, Alif SM, Salehin M, Islam SMS, Banik B, et al. Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. Global health. 2020;16(1):1-15. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
World Health Organization ROfS-EA. Corona Virus Dashboard, Nepal. [Internet] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 10]. [Full Text]
Ministry of Health and Population Population, Health Emergency Operation Center. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak updates and resource materials 2020. Kathmandu, Nepal. [Internet] 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 8]. [Full Text]
The Kathmandu Post. Government extends lockdown until June 14, 2020. [Internet]. 2020 May 3. [Full Text]
Mahato P, Tamang P, Simkhada P, Shahi P, van Teijlingen E, Aryal N, et al. Effects of COVID-19 during lockdown in Nepal. Europasian J Med Sci. 2020;2:105-10. [Full Text | DOI]
Rahman, M.A., Islam, S.M.S., Tungpunkom, P. et al. COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping among community members across 17 countries.Global Health. 2020 Oct 8;16(1):95. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Sigdel A, Bista A, Bhattarai N, Pun BC, Giri G, Marqusee H, et al. Depression, Anxiety and Depression-anxiety comorbidity amid COVID-19 Pandemic: An online survey conducted during lockdown in Nepal. medRxiv.2020.04.30.20086926.[Full Text| DOI]
Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112954. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Cai H, Tu B, Ma J, Chen L, Fu L, Jiang Y, et al. Psychological Impact and Coping Strategies of Frontline Medical Staff in Hunan Between January and March 2020 During the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID?19) in Hubei, China. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e924171. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5):1729.| [Full Text| DOI]
Kang L, Ma S, Chen M, Yang J, Wang Y, Li R, et al. Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:11-7.[PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. Int J Ment Health Addict . 2020:1-9. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Furukawa TA, Kessler RC, Slade T, Andrews G. The performance of the K6 and K10 screening scales for psychological distress in the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Psychol medicine. 2003;33(2):357-62. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Sinclair VG, Wallston KA. The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment. 2004;11(1):94-101.[Pubmed| Full Text| DOI]
Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand S-L, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol medicine. 2002;32(6):959-76. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Kocalevent R-D, Zenger M, Hinz A, Klapp B, Brähler E. Resilient coping in the general population: standardization of the brief resilient coping scale (BRCS). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):1-8.[PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Bitan DT, Grossman-Giron A, Bloch Y, Mayer Y, Shiffman N, Mendlovic S. Fear of COVID-19 scale: Psychometric characteristics, reliability and validity in the Israeli population. Psychiatry Res. 2020;289:113100. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Bwire GM. Coronavirus: Why Men are More Vulnerable to COVID-19 Than Women? SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(7):874-6. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Shrestha DB, Thapa BB, Katuwal N, Shrestha B, Pant C, Basnet B, et al. Psychological distress in Nepalese residents during COVID-19 pandemic: a community level survey. BMC psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-8. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
George, J., 2022. UNESCAP South and South-West Asia – COVID-19 Updates No.2 - Nepal’s fight against the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, UNESCAP: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. [Full Text]
Bahar Moni AS, Abdullah S, Bin Abdullah MFIL, Kabir MS, Alif SM, Sultana F, et al. (2021) Psychological distress, fear and coping among Malaysians during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS ONE 16(9): e0257304. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Rahman MA, Rahman S, Wazib A, Arafat SMY, Chowdhury ZZ, Uddin BMM, Rahman MM, Bahar Moni AS, Alif SM, Sultana F, Salehin M, Islam SMS, Cross W and Bahar T (2021) COVID-19 Related Psychological Distress, Fear and Coping: Identification of High-Risk Groups in Bangladesh. Front. Psychiatry 12:718654. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Chair SY, Chien WT, Liu T, Lam L, Cross W, Banik B, Rahman MA. Psychological Distress, Fear and Coping Strategies among Hong Kong People During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Curr Psychol. 2021 Oct 20:1-20. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]
Pradhan TR. The Kathmandu Post: Government to close down border with India and China for a week. The Kathmandu Post. [Internet] 2020 March 22. [Full Text]
Pradhan TR. Nepal goes under lockdown for a week starting 6 am Tuesday. The Kathmandu Post. [Internet] 2020 March 30. [Full Text]
Sharma K, Banstola A, Parajuli RR. Assessment of COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal: A lockdown scenario analysis. Front Public Health. 2021;9:599280. [PubMed| Full Text| DOI]