A protocol for systematic review on global diversity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtypes

Supplementary Files



Human immunodeficiency virus-1;
Human immunodeficiency virus-2;

How to Cite

Mihir Bhatta, Majumdar, A. ., Sahoo, S., & Dutta, S. . (2023). A protocol for systematic review on global diversity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtypes. Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, 12(3), 179–83. Retrieved from https://jkmc.com.np/ojs3/index.php/journal/article/view/1275


Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 subtypes are heterogeneously distributed around the world. Recent works on near full-length genome sequencing of HIV-1 shows increasing events of different recombinant variants and subtype C viruses. The active change in HIV-1 subtype distribution patterns initiate global challenges for diagnosis, treatment and antiretroviral (ARV) drug design.

Objectives: Present study has been initiated to provide a summary of the current data on the HIV-1 subtype diversity and distribution by region.

Methods: The data will be extracted through data extraction form as per Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study (PICOS) framework. Risk of bias and quality assessment will be performed with the help of Egger’s test and modified Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale respectively. The protocol registration number was International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42023400199.

Results: The pattern of HIV-1 subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF)/Unique Recombinant Form (URF) along with their geographical distribution around the world.

Conclusion: The future systematic review, which will be generated from the present protocol, may provide evidence of the diversity of HIV-1 subtypes around the world. The present protocol might be handy to conduct a systemic review (and meta-analysis, if possible) on the global diversity of HIV-1 subtypes.


UNAIDS: Global HIV and AIDS statistics-2018 fact sheet [Online] 2018; Available from: [Full Text]

Sharp PM, Hahn BH. Origins of HIV and the AIDS pandemic. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1(1): a006841. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Hemelaar J, Gouws E, Ghys PD, Osmanov S. Global and regional distribution of HIV-1genetic subtypes and recombinants in. AIDS 2006; 20: W13–W23. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Gilbert PB, McKeague IW, Eisen G, et al. Comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infectivity from a prospective cohort study in Senegal. Stat Med 2003; 22:573–593 [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Ibe S, Yokomaku Y, Shiino T, et al. HIV-2 CRF01_AB: first circulating recombinant form of HIV-2. J Acquir Immune Defic. Syndr 2010; 54:241–247. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Faria NR, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, et al. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations. Science 2014; 346:56–61. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Peteers M. Recombinant HIV sequences: Their role in the global epidemic. HIV Sequence Compendium 2000. [Full Text]

Song H, Giorgi EE, Ganusov VV, et al. Tracking HIV-1 recombination to resolve itscontribution to HIV-1 evolution in natural infection. Nat Commun 2018; 9:1928. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Tumiotto C, Bellecave P, Recordon-Pinson P, et al. Diversity of HIV-1 in Aquitaine, South western France, 2012–2016. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018; 34:471–473. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Bbosa, N, Pontiano K, and Deogratius S. "HIV subtype diversity worldwide." Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 2019; 14(3):153-160. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Visseaux B, Damond F, Matheron S, et al. HIV-2 molecular epidemiology. Infect Genet Evol 2016; 46:233–240. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Pillay D, Herbeck J, Cohen MS, et al. PANGEA-HIV: phylogenetics for generalized epidemics in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15:259–261. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). [Full Text]

McCutchan FE. Global epidemiology of HIV. J Med Virol 2006; 78 (S1): S7–S12.15. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Marquina S, Leitner T, Rabinovich RD, et al. Coexistence of subtypes B, F, and as B/F env recombinant of HIV type 1 in Buenos Aires Argentina. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1996; 12:1651–1654. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Kanki PJ, Peeters M, Guéye-Ndiaye A. Virology of HIV-1 and HIV-2: implications for Africa. AIDS 1997; 11 (Suppl B): S33–S42. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Lole KS, Bollinger RC, Paranjape RS, et al. Full-length human immunodeficiency virustype 1 genomes from subtype C-infected sero-converters in India, with evidence of inter subtype recombination. J Virol 1999; 73:152–160. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Sabino EC, Shpaer EG, Morgado MG, et al. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope genes recombinant between subtypes B and F in two epidemiologically linked individuals from Brazil. J Virol 1994; 68:6340–6346. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. Bmj. 2015; 349. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Schiavo JH. PROSPERO: an international register of systematic review protocols. Medical reference services quarterly. 2019; 38(2):171–180.[PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Bhatta M Majumdar A, Sahoo S et al.PROSPERO registrar protocol on A Protocol for Systematic Review on Global Diversity of HIV-1 subtypes. ID CRD42023400199; 2023. [Full Text]

Higgins J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, et al, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.3 In. London: Cochrane. 2022.

Downes MJ, Brennan ML, Williams HC et al. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS). BMJ open. 2016; 6(12):e011458 [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Zahedi Z, Costas R, Wouters P. Mendeley readership as a filtering tool to identify highly cited publications. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 2017;68(10):2511-21. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Camp B, Mandivarapu JK, Ramamurthy N, et al. A new cross-platform architecture for epi-info software suite. BMC bioinformatics. 2018; 19(11):1–8. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Luchini C, Stubbs B, Solmi M, et al. Assessing the quality of studies in meta-analyses: Advantages and limitations of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. World J Meta-Anal. 2017; 5(4):80-4. [Full Text | DOI]

Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, et al. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Bmj. 1997; 315(7109):629-34. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994; p. 1088-101. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]