Background: Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Nepal. In order to lower the morbidity and mortality of newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), it is essential to study the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the common bacteriological profile and their antibiotics susceptibility pattern in the NICU of medical college of western Nepal.
Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in NICU of Devdaha Medical College and Research
Institute, Nepal among all blood culture positive neonates admitted between April 2020 to September 2020. Convenient
sampling was done. All clinically suspected neonates were identified and laboratory data including bacteriological profile
and antibiotic sensitivity were recorded and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.
Results: Among 215 neonates admitted in the NICU, 45 (20.9%) had culture positive sepsis. Most isolates were early onset
sepsis (62.22%) and low birth weight (57.78%). The majority of isolates were Gram positive, predominantly Staphylococcus
aureus (37.78%). Staphylococcus aureus showed higher resistance to Cloxacillin (57.1%) and had higher sensitivity to
Vancomycin and Linezolid (100%). Similarly, Gram negative isolates, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sps, showed higher
resistance to Ceftriaxone (100%) and Cefoperazone, and were highly sensitive to Imipenem (100%) and Colistin (100%).
Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism causing neonatal sepsis in current study with
increasing resistance to commonly used Cloxacillin and Ampicillin and highly sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid.
There is higher risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, rational use of empirical antibiotics is necessary to prevent
drug resistant sepsis.
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