Prevalence of thyroid nodules in patients undergoing thyroid ultrasonography at a tertiary care centre


Cross sectional study
Thyroid nodule

How to Cite

Chaudhary, A., Khadka, S. ., Dulal, S. ., & Bikram Thapa, N. . (2022). Prevalence of thyroid nodules in patients undergoing thyroid ultrasonography at a tertiary care centre. Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, 11(3), 137–141. Retrieved from


Background: Thyroid nodules are common diseases, and have been detected up to 50% of the general population. Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterisation of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid nodules in patients undergoing Thyroid ultrasonography in a tertiary care centre.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done among 86 patients. Data were collected from October 2021 to March 2022 after ethical clearance. Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System were used to access the thyroid nodules. Descriptive statistics were applied using SPSS v.20.

Results: The prevalence of thyroid nodules was seen in 98 (88%) individuals in total distributed in 15 (15.3%) males, and 83 (84.7%) females. Among total 98 patients, 66 (67.3%) patients had right thyroid nodules: benign 50 (51%), malignant 16 (16.3%) and 52 (53.7%) had left thyroid nodules: benign 36 (36.7%), malignant 16 (16.3%). The composition of thyroid nodules among majority participants was cystic type, anechoic type of echogenicity. Significant relationship was seen among female gender and malignancy, solid composition of thyroid nodules, and ill-defined margin.

Conclusion: The prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in comparison to other studies. Sonographic features like consistency, margin, and echotexture could differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules by using Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System.



Hairu L, Yulan P, Yan W, Hong A, Xiaodong Z, Lichun Y, et al. Elastography for the diagnosis of high-suspicion thyroid nodules based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines: A multicentre study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2020;20(1):43. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Welker MJ, Orlov D. Thyroid nodules. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(3):559-66. [PubMed | Full Text]

Unnikrishnan AG, Kalra S, Baruah M, Nair G, Nair V, Bantwal G, et al. Endocrine society of India management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules: A position statement. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;15(1):2-8. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Moon WJ, Jung SL, Lee JH, Na DG, Baek JH, Lee YH et al. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules: US differentiation - Multicentre retrospective study. Radiology 2008;247(3):762-70. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Ewid M, Naguib M, Alamer A, El Saka H, Alduraibid S, AlGoblan A, et al. Updated ACR thyroid imaging reporting and data systems in risk stratification of thyroid nodules: 1-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Al-Qassim. Egypt J Intern Med. 2019;31(4):868-73. [Full Text | DOI]

Hoang J. Thyroid nodules and evaluation of thyroid cancer risk. Australas J Ultrasound Med. 2010;13(4):33-6. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Wu H, Zhang B, Li J, Liu Q, Zhao T. Echogenic foci with comet-tail artifact in resected thyroid nodules: Not an absolute predictor of benign disease. PLoS One. 2018;19:13(1):e0191505. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Tessler FN, Middleton WD, Grant EG, Hoang JK, Berland LL, Teefey SA, et al. ACR thyroid imaging, reporting and data system (TI-RADS): White paper of the ACR TI-RADS Committee. J Am Coll Radiol. 2017;14(5):587-95. [PubMed | Full Text |DOI]

Feng S, Zhang Z, Xu S, Mao X, Feng Y, Zhu Y, et al. The prevalence of thyroid nodules and their association with metabolic syndrome risk factors in a moderate iodine intake area. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2017;15(2):93-7. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Khadka H, Sharma S, Ghimire RK, Sayami G. Characterisation of thyroid nodule by sonographic features. Nepal J Radiol. 2017;7(10):19-26. [Full Text | DOI]

Ahmed S, Johnson PT, Horton KM, Lai H, Zaheer A, Tsai S, et al. Prevalence of unsuspected thyroid nodules in adults on contrast enhanced 16- and 64-MDCT of the chest. World J Radiol. 2012;4(7):311-7. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Frates MC, Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Kunreuther E, Contreras M, Cibas ES, et al. Prevalence and distribution of carcinoma in patients with solitary and multiple thyroid nodules on sonography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3411-7. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]

Arpana, Panta OB, Gurung G, Pradhan S. Ultrasound findings in thyroid nodules: A radiocytopathologic correlation. J Med Ultrasound 2018;26(2):90-3. [PubMed | Full Text | DOI]